Coronavirus has completely changed the structure and cycle of earth and living things. Coronavirus, also known as COVID-19 is not a sudden outbreak, it holds a long history. Coronaviruses were first discovered in the 1930s when an acute respiratory infection of domesticated chickens was shown to be caused by the infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). Whereas, Human coronaviruses were discovered in the 1960s.This new group of IBV-like viruses came to be known as coronaviruses after their distinctive morphological appearance. Human coronavirus 229E and human coronavirus OC43 continued to be studied in subsequent decades. The coronavirus strain B814 was lost. It is not known which present human coronavirus it was. Other human coronaviruses have since been identified, including SARS-CoV in 2003, HCoV NL63 in 2004, HCoV HKU1 in 2005, MERS-CoV in 2012, and SARS-CoV-2 in 2019.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‑19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It was first identified in December 2019 in Wuhan, Hubei, China, and has resulted in an ongoing pandemic. As of 17 August 2020, more than 21.5 million cases have been reported across 188 countries and territories, resulting in more than 773,000 deaths. More than 13.5 million people have recovered.
Symptoms of COVID-19 are variable, People with the same infection may have different symptoms, and their symptoms may change over time. For example, one person may have a high fever, cough, and fatigue, and another person may have a low fever at the start of the disease and develop difficulty breathing a week later. All of the symptoms of COVID-19 are non-specific, which means that they are also seen in some other diseases. However, scientists reported that Common symptoms of Coronavirus include fever, cough, fatigue, muscle pain, and then nausea, and/or vomiting, diarrhea, shortness of breath, and loss of smell and taste.
COVID-19 is caused by infection with the Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus strain. People are most infectious when they show symptoms (even mild or non-specific symptoms), but maybe infectious for up to two days before symptoms appear (pre-symptomatic transmission). They remain infectious for an estimated seven to twelve days in moderate cases and an average of two weeks in severe cases. People can also transmit the virus without showing any symptoms (asymptomatic transmission), but it is unclear how often this happens. A June 2020 review found that 40–45% of infected people are asymptomatic.COVID‑19 spreads primarily when people are in close contact and one person inhales small droplets produced by an infected person (symptomatic or not) coughing, sneezing, talking, or singing. The WHO recommends 1 meter (3 ft) of social distance; the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends 2 meters (6 ft).
Since coronavirus seems(is) dangerous it is important for testing the virus. Testing can be a step forward for minimizing the effect of the virus. The WHO has published several testing protocols for the disease. The standard method of testing is a real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR). The test is typically done on respiratory samples obtained by a nasopharyngeal swab; however, a nasal swab or sputum sample may also be used results are generally available within a few hours to two days. Blood tests can be used, but these require two blood samples taken two weeks apart, and the results have little immediate value. As testing of the virus taking a preventive measure is equally important for minimizing effect at the community level. A COVID-19 vaccine is not expected until 2021 at the earliest. Without a vaccine, other prophylactic measures, or effective treatments, a key part of managing COVID‑19 is trying to decrease and delay the epidemic peak, known as “flattening the curve”. This is done by slowing the infection rate to decrease the risk of health services being overwhelmed, allowing for better treatment of current cases, and delaying additional cases until effective treatments or a vaccine become available. Preventive measures to reduce the chances of infection include staying at home, wearing a mask in public, avoiding crowded places, keeping a distance from others, washing hands with soap and water often and for at least 20 seconds, practicing good respiratory hygiene, and avoiding touching the eyes, nose, or mouth with unwashed hands.
To sum up, mutated coronavirus is new to the world, it takes time to develop the vaccine. Our one bad movement may cause a great loss in the world in social, economic, as well as in moral ways. So, it becomes our responsibility to stop/reduce the outbreak of viruses by implementing preventive measures like wearing masks, practicing social distancing, demotivating in going outside of the house unnecessary, and taking cautions.